A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated inmechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here.
Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two major effects.
First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass.
Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members.
This is an Open Access article: The informative abstract, also known as the complete abstract, is a compendious summary of a paper's substance including its background, purpose, methodology, results, and conclusion. The descriptive abstract, also known as the limited abstract or the indicative abstract, provides a description of what the paper covers without delving into its substance.
During the late s, due to the influence of computer storage and retrieval systems such as the Internet , some scientific publications, primarily those published by Elsevier , started including graphical abstracts alongside the text abstracts. It is not intended to be as exhaustive a summary as the text abstract, rather it is supposed to indicate the type, scope, and technical coverage of the article at a glance.
The use of graphical abstracts has been generally well received by the scientific community. However, the validity of this assumption has not been thoroughly studied, and a recent study statistically comparing publications with or without graphical abstracts with regard to several output parameters reflecting visibility failed to demonstrate an effectiveness of graphical abstracts for attracting attention to scientific publications.
Various methods can be used to evaluate abstract quality, e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Finkelstein Jr, Leo McGraw-Hill Education - Europe.
Bly , The Elements of Technical Writing , pg. Macmillan Publishers , Research Methods in Applied Settings: An Integrated Approach to Design and Analysis.
A randomized controlled trial". Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved 30 January Journal of Information Science. Retrieved January 24, Journal of the American Chemical Society. Academic journal Scientific journal Open-access journal Public health journal.
Write your abstract using completely new vocabulary and phrases to keep it interesting and redundancy-free. Use key phrases and words. If your abstract is to be published in a journal, you want people to be able to find it easily. In order to do so, readers will search for certain queries on online databases in hopes that papers, like yours, will show up. Try to use important words or phrases key to your research in your abstract. You want to draw people in with your abstract; it is the hook that will encourage them to continue reading your paper.
Avoid being too specific. An abstract is a summary, and as such should not refer to specific points of your research other than possibly names or locations. You should not need to explain or define any terms in your abstract, a reference is all that is needed. Avoid being too explicit in your summary and stick to a very broad overview of your work.
This specialized vocabulary may not be understood by general readers in your area and can cause confusion. Be sure to do basic revisions. The abstract is a piece of writing that, like any other, should be revised before being completed. Check it over for grammatical and spelling errors and make sure it is formatted properly.
Get feedback from someone. If you have these resources available to you, use them! Asking for assistance can also let you know about any conventions in your field. However, in the humanities active voice is usually preferred. In all the description of what you did, a simple past tense is best; since you're describing what you did, neither present nor future would be appropriate. Not Helpful 1 Helpful Not Helpful 0 Helpful 8. An abstract explains the aim of the paper in very brief, the methods, results, etc.
In the introduction, you write the background of your topic, explain the purpose of the paper more broadly, and explain the hypothesis, and the research question s. Not Helpful 19 Helpful An abstract can either be written, soft copy or any other form with words, it's the content that matters. Not Helpful 20 Helpful Usually, abstracts are provided at the beginning of the thesis or article. This will help readers to understand the work, and will attract interested readers.
Not Helpful 8 Helpful No, but everything in your abstract should be covered later in the paper. Cite the sources then.
Not Helpful 17 Helpful Your word processing software probably includes a word count feature, consult the documentation. If you're doing it by hand, approximate the number of words per line very roughly. Then count the number of lines, and multiply it by the number of words per line. It gives a fairly accurate estimate. Not Helpful 26 Helpful An abstract is one of the best tools to help researchers determine if a paper would be useful for them to read or not.
Not Helpful 3 Helpful 6. If I'm writing an abstract for a science fair project, how long should it be? To be honest there aren't really rules on how long an abstract should be.
Normally abstracts can be a paragraph around 5 or 6 sentences or longer. Your abstract shouldn't be too long, try to make it a page long at most. Not Helpful 1 Helpful 2. Answer this question Flag as What could be the abstract for the students inflow in the school? How do I write an abstract on a mental disorder? How to write an abstract for woman empowerment era globalization?
How to write abstracts for working age of child? Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Quick Summary To write an abstract, start with a short paragraph that explains the purpose of your paper and what it's about.
Did this summary help you? Look at other abstracts in similar publications for an idea of how yours should go. It is often reasonable to assume that your readers have some understanding of your field and the specific language it entails, but anything you can do to make the abstract more easily readable is a good thing.
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IO Ivan Omondi Jul 6. Really helped me in my assignment. H Honey Jun UO Uzoma Owualah Jun Thanks for helping me out. I'm studying software engineering. This article has helped break down the core components of an abstract and helped me address the key points I need to cover when writing my own. Beforehand, I did not know what is the difference between paper, abstract, even an article exactly. However, by reading this article, it gave more insight to me. Thanks in advance for sharing this worthwhile article.
MB Mike Bossert Dec 27, The article gave me constructive ideas and set me on the right path to write an effective abstract. MM Maryam Mahdavi Sep 19, Therefore, the tips that you had given can be very helpful for them.
They can have a very good idea about the essential of writing a research paper. At the last minute I turned to Google and this article did not disappoint. LF Liza Fonns Feb 3. I am currently enrolled in science fair, and I want to have a good, solid, abstract. This article is just what I needed!
KW Khalil Williams Apr 14, Now I know how to write an abstract. UL Ursula Leahy May 1, SM Santhanalakshmi Manoharan Jul 31, From this, I could completely make an abstract for my project. Thanks, now on the right track. AT Andrea Tiangco Aug 10, It made writing an abstract easier for me to understand and do. It's simple but effective.
An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of words or less, the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes: 1) the overall purpose of the study and the research problem(s) you investigated; 2) the basic design of the study; 3) major findings or trends found.
HOW TO WRITE A RESEARCH ABSTRACT Research abstracts are used throughout the research community to provide a concise description about a research project. It is typically a short summary of your completed research. If done well, about the research than about the paper.
Humanities Abstracts “Margaret C. Anderson’s Little Review” Sophia Estante and Lorrie Moore (Mentor), English. This research looks at the work of Margaret C. Anderson, the editor of the Little Review. The review published first works by Sherwood Anderson, James Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, and Ezra Pound. This research draws upon mostly . An abstract is a concise summary of a larger project (a thesis, research report, performance, service project, etc.) that concisely describes the content and scope of the project and identifies the project’s objective, its methodology and its findings, conclusions, or intended results.
Aug 23, · Expert Reviewed. How to Write an Abstract. Three Parts: Getting Your Abstract Started Writing Your Abstract Formatting Your Abstract Community Q&A If you need to write an abstract for an academic or scientific paper, don't panic! Your abstract is simply a short, stand-alone summary of the work or paper that others can use as an overview. An abstract 83%(92). An abstract of a scientific research paper will contain elements not found in an abstract of a literature article, and vice versa. However, all abstracts share several mandatory components, and there are also some optional parts that you can decide to include or not.