Formerly, the Latin terms ibid. It is recommended that you use Endnote in place of Footnotes. This will eliminate the need to allow sufficient space to accommodate all the required Footnote entries at the bottom of the same page where your citations occur. If your instructor has no preference, use the much simpler Parenthetical Documentation in place of Footnotes or Endnotes.
Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes Spacing. The standard rule for typing the main body of a manuscript or report is double spacing unless there is an special reason for single spacing it. Triple spacing is used before and after the main heading while side headings blocked and capitals are preceded by a triple space 2 blank lines and followed by a double space 1 blank line.
Single spacing is used for listings, enumerations, long quotations, footnotes, and other displays. Direct quotation of not more than three typewritten lines in length is run into the text and typed double spaced. A long direct quotation is typed single spaced. Row, explain it this way: A quotation of three or fewer lines of typing is displayed simply for being typed within quotation marks, but a longer quotation is given special display.
It is single spaced and indented five spaces from regular margins on both sides. Unbounded manuscripts whose pages are not going to be fastened like reports or articles for publication are usually typed with at least one-inch on all sides. On the first page, however, an extra inch at the top is provided so that the top margin falls two inches deep. With top-bound pages, the top margin on all pages, except the first, is increased by one-half inch.
With a side binding, the left margin is increased by one-half inch on all pages. Thus, on a side-bounded page the center of typed line moves to the right of actual center one-half the number of spaces left for the binding.
Every page in a manuscript is assigned a number although not indicated on every page. For example, the first page, where the title appears or the beginning of a chapter no page figure is typed but a number is allowed for that page.
The page number is usually typed one-half. Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes or one inch form the top edge, aligned with the right margin and opposite the running head, if there is no running head, the page number is usually placed at the center of the page. Top-bound manuscript is usually placed at the center of the page. Top-bound manuscript is usually numbered at the center, one or one-half inch at the bottom of the page.
In typing manuscripts with footnotes, special care should be exercised so that all the footnotes corresponding to the references that appear on the page are accommodated on the same page. This can be facilitated with the use of typing aids. The general tendency in academic writing has recently been to offer endnotes rather than footnotes.
This is because the printing of footnotes in academic publications is very costly. However, the automatic footnoting facility on modern word-processors might reverse this trend. Imaginary Press, , p.
This system can easily become very unwieldy, even though it is obviously convenient for the reader. If the notes are no more than bibliographical information on your sources, the effect will be slightly irritating. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.
A footnote is commonly, but not always, a shortened version of a citation at the end of the book. Whatever content your footnote will include, however, it's probably the last thing to do in the writing of a text.
Write your complete paper, including a list of references, before inserting footnotes. Go to the end of the sentence you want to footnote. In the footer, type the information you'd like to include foot-noted.
The cursor should be placed after any punctuation. The number linking to the footnote should appear outside the sentence, not inside of it. If you do not know where to find the menu to insert footnotes in your word processing program, go to the help menu and research it before starting to footnote your paper.
Cite your quotation or reference. In the event that you're using footnotes in place of parenthetical in-text citations, the footnote should include the name of the author or editor, title in italics , compiler, translator or editor, edition, name of series including number or volume , place of publication, publisher and date of publication and page numbers of citation.
Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Cite an online resource. You need the following information in this order to footnote a website: Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples, http: Continue footnoting your article or essay with additional notes. Go to each location in which you've referenced another source and repeat this process.
Use an abbreviated version of the source in subsequent footnotes that have the same source. You will need the author or editor's last name, an abbreviated title in italics and the number or numbers that are cited. Regardless of what style you're using, the use of footnotes does not replace the need for an ending list of references in the article, even though they are made superfluous.
Add footnotes that clarify sources to the reader. Instead of including publishing information about the source in the footnote, often writers will footnote additional "asides" or tangentially related information in footnotes, often gleaned from other resources not directly cited.
David Foster Wallace, in his long novel Infinite Jest made use of pages-long footnotes as a kind of in-joke. In academic writing, this should be used sparingly, but is common in memoir or other non-fiction styles of prose. Science writing conventions will often footnote additional research studies that came to similar conclusions, but aren't being directly cited in the study at hand. If a paper quoted a source that talked about wikiHow articles and you wanted to clarify it, your footnote after the number might look like this:
Footnotes must be listed numerically and consecutively, both in your essay and in your Footnote citation. Footnote numbers must be superscripted. In your text, add a superscripted number immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space.
Guide to Essay Writing - Footnotes. Contents. Footnotes. Footnotes, notes or endnotes As a rule-of-thumb one could say that, although footnotes or notes are necessary, your interpretation should be able to stand without them. Thus, you should not carry on your main argument in footnotes.
The footnotes may be numbered in sequence on each page or throughout the entire essay. I. Form and Content of Footnotes: A. From a book: 1 W. J. Eccles, Frontenac The Courtier Governor (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, ), Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page and endnotes come at the end of the document. A number or symbol on the footnote or endnote matches up with a reference mark in the document. Click where you want to reference to the footnote or endnote.
The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is that Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made; while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitles Endnotes or Notes. 22 Sample Paragraph with Footnotes and a Bibliography In the field of music, we usually use the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) citation system (not MLA, APA, etc.); see the chart on the following pages for examples of how to format footnotes and bibliography entries for various kinds of items.