University and public libraries provide the best place to obtain material to research and cite. A simple way to strengthen your argument through citations is by incorporating some relevant statistics. Simple statistics can have a major impact if presented after you've made a bold assertion. For instance, you may claim that the patient's family members would be unduly traumatized if the patient chose euthanasia, and then cite a university study that catalogued a majority of families reporting trauma or stress in this situation.
Another helpful citation is one in which the broad issue itself is discussed. For instance, you might cite a prominent ethicist's position on your issue to strengthen your position.
Some things to consider when trying to determine if a source is trustworthy include: Steer clear of sources without an author attached to them or that lack credentials when credentials seem crucial, such as in an article about a medical subject. Is the publication a book, journal, magazine, or website? Is the publisher an academic or educational institution? Does the publisher have a motive other than education? Who is the intended audience? Ask yourself these questions to determine if this source is reliable.
For example, a university or government website might be reliable, but a site that sells items may be biased toward what they're selling. How well has the author researched his or her topic? If the author has not provided any sources, then you may want to look for a different source. Has the author presented an objective, well-reasoned account of the topic?
If the sources seems skewed towards one side of the argument, then it may not be a good choice. Does this source present the most up to date information on the subject? If the sources is outdated, then try to find something more recent. Once you have gathered all of your sources, you will need to read them.
Read your sources well and keep your topic in mind as you read. It is important that you fully understand all of your sources. If you cannot do one or both of these things, then you may need to read the source again. Creating notecards for your sources may also help you to organize your ideas.
Write the citation for the source on the top of the notecard, then write a brief summary and response to the article in the lined area of the notecard. As you read your sources, it is also a good idea to highlight and underline significant passages so that you can easily come back to them. Look for information that supports your thesis or relates to your counterarguments.
You may also want to jot down quotes that you may want to use in your paper. Work from your outline. Getting started on a draft can be a difficult process, but your outline provides you with a kind of roadmap.
By expanding on the ideas in your outline you will generate more useable, relevant text for your draft. Include a relevant source for each item as well. Make sure that you include all of the key parts of an ethics paper. While your professor may have some specific guidelines that you need to follow, there are some items that are often included in ethics papers.
A paper defending an ethical position should first take and defend a stand , then present strong counterarguments , then refute those counterarguments , and then conclude the paper. If not, you will need to add a section and use your sources to help inform that section. Plan to write your ethics paper using several drafts. After expanding on your outline, you can begin writing the first draft of your ethics paper.
It is possible that you will need to write multiple drafts of your paper to get it right, so make sure that you give yourself plenty of time for this process. If the argument is structured well and each conclusion is supported by your reasoning and by cited evidence, you will be able to focus on the writing itself on the second draft.
Unless major revisions are needed to your argument for example, if you have decided to change your thesis statement , use the second draft to strengthen your writing.
Focus on sentence lengths and structures, vocabulary, and other aspects of the prose itself. Give yourself a break before revising. By taking a break after you have finished drafting your paper, you will give your brain a chance to rest and process difficult concepts. When you revisit the draft, you will have a fresh perspective. Try to allow yourself a few days or even a week to revise your paper before it is due. If you do not allow yourself enough time to revise, then you will be more prone to making simple mistakes and your grade may suffer as a result.
Consider your paper from multiple angles as your revise. As you revise your paper, ask yourself questions about the way you have written your paper. Taking the time to ask and answer some questions about what you have written will help you to improve what you have written. Consider the following questions as you revise: Does my paper fulfill the requirements of the assignment?
How might it score according to the rubric provided by my instructor? What is your main point? How might you clarify your main point? Who is your audience? Have you considered their needs and expectations? What is your purpose? Have you accomplished your purpose with this paper? How effective is your evidence? How might your strengthen your evidence? Does every part of your paper relate back to your thesis? How might you improve these connections?
Is anything confusing about your language or organization? The crucial point to note here is that objections come in two forms. First, there are objections that are directed against the reasons that you have offered in support of your thesis, and which claim, therefore, either that some of your assumptions are implausible, or that some of your reasoning is unsatisfactory. Secondly, there are objections that are directed against your conclusion, and which attempt to provide reasons for thinking that the view which you are advancing is false.
Objections of the first sort are especially crucial, and your main obligation is to address such objections. The reason is that if all that you do is to rebut objections to your thesis, and you fail to consider objections to your argument, then you haven't shown that you have made out a satisfactory positive case in support of your thesis.
How do you arrive at interesting objections to your own arguments? The crucial thing is to look carefully at the assumptions that you have made, and to ask yourself which of those are controversial, in the sense that they might well be questioned by an intelligent, thoughtful, and well-informed person. Having located a controversial assumption, you need to consider why a thoughtful person might disagree with it, and then try to respond to that objection. Have I carefully set out the most important objection to each of my arguments?
Have I then responded, in a careful way, to that objection or objections? After you have carefully considered objections to your argument or arguments , the next important task is to consider objections which, rather than being directed against the reasons that you have offered in support of your view, are directed instead against your view itself, and which attempt to show that your view is incorrect. Here you need to set out any such objection or objections in a clear, careful, and dispassionate fashion, and then indicate why you think the objection in question is unsound.
How many objections to your thesis should you attempt to consider? Here, as elsewhere, trying to cover too much ground can result in a weak and superficial discussion.
Try to find the strongest objection, and address it in a detailed way. Have I considered the most important objection against the thesis that I am defending? Have I responded carefully to that objection? At the heart of a paper that examines some moral issue in a critical fashion is the setting out of arguments - both arguments in support of your positions, and arguments directed either against some of your assumptions, or against your position itself.
Whenever one is setting out an argument, one needs to do so in a careful step-by-step fashion, so that it is clear to the reader both what assumptions the argument involves, and what the reasoning is - that is, how one is supposed to get from the assumptions to the conclusion.
One thing that it is very important to avoid is the setting out of more than one argument in a single paragraph. For this usually results in too brief an exposition of the arguments in question, and often in a muddling together of the two arguments, thereby obscuring the structure of the reasoning. Are my arguments carefully and explicitly set out so that both all of my assumptions, and my reasoning, are clear?
Have I, at any point, set out more than one argument in a single paragraph? Are objections and responses set out in separate paragraphs? A crucial factor that makes for a good essay is the presence of a logical and perspicuous structure.
So it's important to ask how one can both organize one's discussion in a logical fashion, and make that organization perspicuous to the reader. The structure will be clear to the reader if you begin with an introductory paragraph of the sort described above, and then go on, first, to divide your essay up into sections and possibly also subsections , and secondly, to use informative headings to mark out those sections and subsections.
The reader will then be able to see at a glance how you have structured your discussion. What makes for logical organization?
If you do the things mentioned above, in sections I through IV, in the order discussed, the result will be an essay whose overall logical organization is very strong.
That is to say, start by setting out your thesis, and outlining your overall approach in the introductory paragraph. Follow this with a section in which you offer reasons for accepting the view that you are advancing. Then go on to devote two sections to a consideration of objections. In the first, set out, and respond to, objections that are directed against any controversial assumptions that you have made in arguing in support of your own view.
Then, in the second, consider objections that might be directed against your thesis itself. Individual sections also need to be organized in a logical fashion. This is primarily a matter of setting out arguments in a step-by-step fashion, and of discussing different arguments in different subsections, as discussed above in section V. Is my essay organized into sections in a logical fashion?
Are the sections divided into appropriate subsections? Have I made the overall structure of my essay clear by using informative headings for sections and subsections? Suppose, for example, that Mary is considering whether there should be a law against the sale of pornography.
There are various ways in which she can formulate this question, some of which will strongly suggest one answer rather than another. If this is the way she puts the issue, it will not be too surprising if she arrives at the conclusion that one certainly needs a law against pornography.
Suppose, on the other hand, that what she asks is whether people should be prevented from having access to important information about something which is not only natural and very beautiful, but also a means of expressing feelings of tenderness and love.
When the question is phrased this way, it seems likely that she will arrive a rather different conclusion. Why are emotionally charged formulations bad?
There are two reasons. First, they tend to alienate the reader or listener, thereby making it less likely that others will devote much time to a serious consideration of your arguments. But secondly, such formulations are even more dangerous with respect to one's own thinking, since what they typically do is to make it seem that the right answer is obvious, and this in turn usually prevents one from grappling with the issue in a serious way, and from subjecting one's own view to critical examination.
Have I made use of emotively charged language? Is my discussion dispassionate and fair throughout? Obscurity is not a sign of profundity.
I suspect that this point probably needs to be labored a bit, as there are reasons for thinking that many people, in their secondary school education, are encouraged to express their ideas in a fashion which sounds profound. Consider, for example, the following experiment, carried out by two English professors at the University of Chicago. Joseph Williams and Rosemary Hake took a well-written paper, and changed the language to produce two different versions. Both versions involved the same ideas and concepts, but one was written in simplified, straightforward language, while the other was written in verbose, bombastic language, loaded with pedantic terms.
They then submitted the two papers to nine high-school teachers, and found that all nine gave very high marks to the verbose paper, but downgraded the straightforward essay as too simple and shallow.
Free Ethics papers, essays, and research papers. Codes of Ethics - Introduction Throughout the world, business organizations and various professions conduct daily activities that require standards of .
College ethics courses dive into issues from business theory to modern scientific research. In the process of exploring these issues and raising questions a good course will draw on a wide body of literatures including humanities, management theory, and the social sciences.
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