Skip Nav

How to Cite an Essay in MLA

MLA Formatting and Style Guide

❶A recent study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan

MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

Essay Citations
How to Cite
Don't want to cite by hand?

If there are two authors, name them both with "and" in the middle. Use commas if there are more than two authors. Place the citation before a punctuation mark. Add a superscript number at the end of the statement to denote which source it is referring to. Even if you refer to the same source multiple times, it gets a new superscript number every time.

Start the superscript numbers from 1 every time you start a new page. Place an APA reference. Write the author last name or organization name and year in parentheses. If the author is already mentioned in the statement, put the year in parentheses next to the name and put the page number in parentheses at the end of the statement, if applicable.

Unlike with the Turabian footnotes, there's only one superscript number for each source. It's possible to have superscript numbers on one page that are out of order if a source was cited on a previous page.

You can also cite multiple sources at once by specifying a range, or using a comma. The citation can go in the sentence or at the end, after punctuation. Write the author last name and publication year in parentheses. If the author is already mentioned in the statement, just put the year in parentheses. Use commas only if there are more than two authors. Cite in Chicago Manual of Style. Chicago style usually lists author and then date.

This style is recommended for natural and social sciences, as well as the other humanities. Similar to MLA as described above. For example, Marbury v. Madison , 5 U. Madison, found in the fifth volume of the reports of the U. Supreme Court, starting at page , 12 U. Assemble the list of works cited or references.

This is what the reader will refer to when they see a citation and want to find out where you got the information. It usually goes at the end of the work except when you use Turabian footnotes and is sometimes referred to as a bibliography when it includes sources that were not directly cited.

The following links contain guidelines and examples for commonly used styles: Don't forget to put your sources in order! For most formats, you will need to put your sources in alphabetical order. Make sure to include all of your sources in your bibliography.

You do not want to be accused of plagiarism, especially if you are in college as this can get you kicked out. Give the author's name if given , title of the work, group responsible for the site if applicable , date site was last updated, date of access, and URL.

Not Helpful 3 Helpful What do you do if I am trying to cite a book and the two authors have the same last name? If it is the same book, write "A and B [LastName], ". If it is a different book, it would not matter as long as it is written in the Bibliography. Not Helpful 2 Helpful 7. There appear to be errors in the "Sample MLA Citation List" - sometimes surnames appear first, sometimes second, for example: This is not an error.

For the works cited page in MLA format, the first author's surname is placed first, for alphabetical order. Subsequent authors are identified by first name and surname. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 0. How do I cite sources when a paper I want to reference has its own citations listed? If you see something you would like to cite in paper A, but it is already a citation from paper B, find paper B and cite paper B.

What should I do if I can't find the components needed on a website? Do I leave it blank or something else? Answer this question Flag as How do I cite the pictures I used in my document? How can I build a list of citations to insert in the text? In qualitative reporting, do the same rules apply for indenting and not using quotes?

How do I put the cited source into my paragraph or paper? Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Did this summary help you? Tips If you're making a presentation and you have slides to show the audience, it's appropriate to cite your sources on the slides any format is usually acceptable as well as to mention the source when you speak e. Have a list of sources ready in case anyone asks for them after the presentation.

Organize your notes by source. Most often, you need to cite a single essay found in a collection. This changes the citation format slightly because you refer to the author and essay title before the collection, as in the example:.

Cheryl Strayed and Robert Atwan. All bibliographic entries in MLA need to use a hanging indent, in which the second and subsequent lines of text for each entry are indented. You might need to refer to an entire collection of essays by one author; in this case, you would cite the collection as a book by an author, as follows:.

If the book is translated, include the translator in the citation, much like you would for an editor:. This citation includes two dates, because the original essays were published in , while the reprinted edition referred to was published in If your book source has two or three authors, follow the format of last name - first name for the first author, and use first name - last name format for the subsequent authors. You might find essays online, which are likely published on a website or as part of an online journal or magazine.

To cite the Web page, first list the author and essay title, followed by the name of the website and the date you accessed the site, as in the example:. Indianapolis Monthly Publications, MLA format does not require you to write the URL at the end of the citation, but you could include it after the access date.

Parenthetical and in-text citations direct your reader to the bibliographic entry in your works cited page. If you mention the author within a sentence, only put the page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Cara Batema is a musician, teacher and writer who specializes in early childhood, special needs and psychology. Since , Batema has been an active writer in the fields of education, parenting, science and health.

Online Writing Lab

Main Topics

Privacy Policy

In Modern Language Association (MLA) format, these citations include the author, essay title and information about the print or online source where you found the essay, such as the editor, publisher name and publication date. MLA style also dictates the use of in-text citations to point the reader to the appropriate works cited entry.

Privacy FAQs

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

About Our Ads

This is done with an in-text, or a parenthetical citation (in the body of a project), AND a full reference on the MLA Works Cited page (the final page of a project). This guide focuses on how to create MLA in-text citations and MLA parenthetical citations in the current MLA style, which is in its 8th edition. Citing an essay: getting acquainted with MLA and APA It doesn’t matter if you are just a high school student or you are already a professional writer: you should be able to cite the sources you use with a specific style of formatting.

Cookie Info

Cite your source. Usually, when you use a quotation, it's appropriate to cite the author's name within the text. In that case, you need only to reference the page number of the quotation. Works Cited The works cited section goes on a new page after the end of your essay. Put . Evaluating Web Sources: Is It FLAWED? MLA Style. In other words, it is NOT enough to simply list the sources you used on a Works Cited Page or References List. As your instructor reads your essay, he or she should clearly be able to see which sentences, facts, or sections of your essay came from Source A, Source B, or Source C, etc. by.