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Punjabi language

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❶The questionnaire method will be implemented to collect the data for the present study and to select the sample population random sampling method will be used. Retrieved 4 January

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It is, however, the official provincial language of Punjab, Pakistan , the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan as well as in Islamabad Capital Territory. The only two official national languages in Pakistan are Urdu and English , which are considered the lingua francas of Pakistan. Tabbar in both dialects is informal in the following table. Shahpuri dialect also known as Sargodha dialect is mostly spoken in Pakistani Punjab.

It is spoken throughout a widespread area, spoken in Sargodha and Khushab Districts and also spoken in neighbouring Mianwali and Bhakkar Districts.

It is mainly spoken on western end of Sindh River to Chennab river crossing Jehlam river. Malwai is spoken in the eastern part of Indian Punjab and also in Bahawalnagar and Vehari districts of Pakistan. Malwa is the southern and central part of present-day Indian Punjab. It also includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana , viz.

Ambala , Hissar , Sirsa , Kurukshetra etc. Not to be confused with the Malvi language, which shares its name. Doabi is spoken in both the Indian Punjab as well as parts of Pakistan Punjab owing to post migration of Muslim populace from East Punjab.

The word "Do Aabi" means "the land between two rivers" and this dialect was historically spoken between the rivers of the Beas and the Sutlej in the region called Doaba. Regions it is presently spoken includes the Jalandhar , Hoshiarpur and Kapurthala districts in Indian Punjab, specifically in the areas known as the Dona and Manjki , as well as the Toba Tek Singh and Faisalabad districts in Pakistan Punjab where the dialect is known as Faisalabadi Punjabi.

The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar adjacent to Ambala District Haryana is Powadhi. The Powadh extends from that part of the Rupnagar District which lies near Satluj to beyond the Ghaggar river in the east up to Kala Amb, which is at the border of the states of Himachal pradesh and Haryana.

Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib district, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are also part of Powadh. The language is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as Haryana. Jangli is a dialect of former nomad tribes of areas whose names are often suffixed with 'Bar' derived from jungle bar before irrigation system arrived in the start of the 20th century, for example, Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli Bar, Ganji Bar.

Former Layllpur and western half of Montgomary district used to speak this dialect. West of Chenaab river in Jhang district of Pakistani Punjab the dialect of Jhangochi merges with Thalochi and resultant dialect is Chenavari. Name is derived from Chenaab river. Punjabi is a tonal language and in any word there is a choice of three tones, high-falling, low-rising, and level neutral: Some writers describe this as a fourth tone.

The development of a high-falling tone apparently did not take place in every word, but only in those which historically had a long vowel.

The Gurmukhi script which was developed in the 16th century has separate letters for voiced aspirated sounds, so it is thought that the change in pronunciation of the consonants and development of tones may have taken place since that time. Some other languages in Pakistan have also been found to have tonal distinctions, including Burushaski , Gujari , Hindko , Kalami , Shina , and Torwali. The grammar of the Punjabi language concerns the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Punjabi language.

The main article discusses the grammar of Modern Standard Punjabi as defined by the sources cited therein. Punjabi has two major writing systems in use: The word Gurmukhi means "from the Guru's mouth", [38] and Shahmukhi means "from the King's mouth".

In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script used is Shahmukhi and differs from the Urdu alphabet in having four additional letters. This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Lahore. Lahore is the capital city of the Pakistani Punjab.

After a number of people from Karachi , Lahore is the second largest city. Lahore is Pakistan's political stronghold and education capital and so it is also the heart of Pakistan. Lahore lies on the bank of the Ravi River. And, its population is close to ten million people.

The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during the Raj.

When Pakistan was created in , although Punjabi was the majority language in West Pakistan and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan as whole, English and Urdu were chosen as the national languages.

The selection of Urdu was due to its association with South Asian Muslim nationalism and because the leaders of the new nation wanted a unifying national language instead of promoting one ethnic group's language over another.

Article of the Constitution of Pakistan declares that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the use of other languages. Eventually, Punjabi was granted status as a provincial language in Punjab Province, while the Sindhi language was given official status in after Language violence in Sindh. Despite gaining official recognition at the provincial level, Punjabi is not a language of instruction for primary or secondary school students in Punjab Province unlike Sindhi and Pashto in other provinces.

One notable example is the teaching of Punjabi language and literature by the University of the Punjab in Lahore which began in with the establishment of its Punjabi Department.

In the cultural sphere, there are many books, plays, and songs being written or produced in the Punjabi-language in Pakistan. Until the s, there were a large number of Punjabi-language films being produced by the Lollywood film industry, however since then Urdu has become a much more dominant language in film production.

Additionally, television channels in Punjab Province centred on the Lahore area are broadcast in Urdu. The preeminence of Urdu in both broadcasting and the Lollywood film industry is seen by critics as being detrimental to the health of the language. The use of Urdu and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish.

Hafiz Saeed , chief of Jama'at-ud-Da'wah JuD has questioned Pakistan's decision to adopt Urdu as its national language in a country where majority of people speak Punjabi language, citing his interpretation of Islamic doctrine as encouraging education in the mother-tongue. At the federal level, Punjabi has official status via the Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution.

Both federal and state laws specify the use of Punjabi in the field of education. The state of Punjab uses the Three Language Formula, and Punjabi is required to be either the medium of instruction, or one of the three languages learnt in all schools in Punjab.

There is a vibrant Punjabi language movie industry in India, however Punjabi has a much smaller presence in television. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History of the Punjabi language. States of India by Punjabi speakers. Punjab portal Languages portal. Archived from the original on 12 July Retrieved 13 August Archived from the original on 12 September Retrieved 4 January Language in South Asia.

Archived from the original on 10 June Retrieved 24 October Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 12 February Archived from the original on 22 December In Lust, Barbara; Gair, James.

There does seem to have been some speculation among scholars about the possible origin of Punjabi's tone-language character but without any final and convincing answer Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge , United Kingdom: The first Punjabi printing press using Gurmukhi font was established through a Christian mission at Ludhiana in the year , and the first Punjabi dictionary was published by Reverend J.

Modernism was introduced into Punjabi poetry by Prof. Mohan Singh and Shareef Kunjahi. The Punjabi diaspora also began to emerge during the Raj and produced poetry whose theme was revolt against British rule. The Punjabi novel developed through Nanak Singh who helped link the novel to the story-telling traditions of qissa and the oral tradition as well as to questions of social reform; and Bhai Vir Singh, who wrote historical romances Sundari, Satwant Kaur and Baba Naudh Singh.

Vir Singh is considered the father of modern Punjabi literature and the best product of the Singh Sabha Movement. His Rana Surat Singh was the first successful attempt at blank verse in the language.

His novels are historic records. The nationalist spirit produced poets like Gurumukh Sikh Musafir. Mohan Singh and Amrita Pritam brought a progressive note into poetry. The novels, short stories and poetry of Amrita Pritam highlighted, among other themes, the experience of women, and the partition of India.

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Essay. units of Pakistan. Language: Punjabi is an important language in Pakistan. It is even spoken and understood in areas beyond the confines of Punjab. It is used as the vehicle of common expression. Punjabi is a very rich language. Particularly it is rich in mystical and romantic poetry.

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PUNJABI ESSAYS IN PUNJABI LANGUAGE. Applied filters. Punjabi essays. Expository essay in urdu. Punjabi language may 22, dysthymic disorder case study, binding: harjit harman musical artist, cover letter x-ray fluently. Warming in punjabi. I speak urdu sad whatsapp status. Language, poems, cover letter x-ray fluently. Essay on Punjabi Language! According to scholars Punjabi grew out of the Sauraseni Apabhramsa in the 11th century AD. Some scholars also see Paisachi influence in its development. The earliest Punjabi literature is found in the fragments of writings of the 11th century Nath yogis Gorakshanath and Charpatnah which are primarily spiritual .