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❶The next stage is to add context and structure. Place the reference citation at the end of the sentence but before the final period.

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INTRODUCTION

Leave one space after a period unless your teacher prefers two. Title Page Only if your teacher requests one. Instead, on the first page, upper left corner place on separate lines, double-spaced: Your name Teacher's name Course name or number Date Underneath, center the title using regular title capitalization rules and no underline.

Start the report immediately below the title. The title page is always the first page. Paper title Your name Your school Section Headings Top level headings should be centered on the page, using upper and lower case. Second level headings should be flush left, italicized, using upper and lower case. Unless your teacher tells you otherwise, tables and illustrations appear at the end of the paper. Order of Major Sections Each of these sections if present begins on a new page: Follow your teacher's request.

Reproduction of material from this website without written permission is strictly prohibited. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms and Conditions of Fair Use. Foremost in your description should be the "quantitative" aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc.

When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures e. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category e.

It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source vendor and catalog number for reagents used, e. Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses usually hypothesis tests were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance.

Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. This is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. It is characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details. The lid was then raised slightly. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand.

The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Same actions, but all the important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information.

The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. Tube 4's A was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Notice how the substitution in red of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context.

The A of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results , without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures. The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed.

Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text usually parenthetically or in the relevant Tables or Figures in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure.

Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Use the past tense. Avoid repetitive paragraph structures.

Do not interpret the data here. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope. Consider the following two examples: The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages Fig.

The results of the germination experiment Fig. Strategy for Writing the Results Section. Frequently asked questions FAQs. What are the "results"? When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about those organisms or phenomena. Those observations are then analyzed to yield an answer to the question. In general, the answer is the " key result".

The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ. So, in an introductory course your analysis may consist of visual inspection of figures and simple calculations of means and standard deviations; in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of statistical tests. You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is expected. For example, suppose you asked the question, " Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected Biology majors?

You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples mean, SD, n, range, etc and plot these numbers.

In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on average, Differences, directionality, and magnitude: Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences or relationships.

For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to simply report that "groups A and B were significantly different". How are they different? How much are they different? See also below about use of the word " significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon as all the data are analyzed and arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way.

A good strategy is to note, on a draft of each Table or Figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the Results. Simple rules to follow related to Tables and Figures: The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures. The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to the question s investigated.

A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information. Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. Some problems to avoid: Statistical test summaries test name, p- value are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support.

Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding if statistical tests are being used in your course. This parenthetical reference should include the statistical test used and the level of significance test statistic and DF are optional. For example, if you found that the mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of female Biology majors, you might report this result in blue and your statistical conclusion shown in red as follows: If the summary statistics are shown in a figure, the sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to the figure where they may be seen: Note that the report of the key result shown in blue would be identical in a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in red would simply not appear except reference to the figure.

Present the results of your experiment s in a sequence that will logically support or provide evidence against the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. There are strict norms and regulations in the academic world that need to be observed. Research paper sample format Imagine such a situation. You were assigned with a research paper on certain topic. Previously, you had no experience in academic writing on such a high level.

You are well versed in the chosen topic but have very little knowledge on the paper format. How should you write it? There is way out. You can look for sample research paper format.

It is possible to download free samples from web sites of essay writing companies. A sample providers you with information on essay structure. Very often it is complemented with writing tips and secrets.

So, the only thing you have to do is just to organize information you have found and texts you have written for your research. If we are talking about research papers , they can be compared to essays, but in fact, any research must have a more complex structure and present some deep analysis, comparison and contrasting, own thoughts and conclusions.

If a research paper has wrong structure even some really impressive material will never look persuasive. That is why, before sitting down to work it is imperative to create research paper outline and study format requirements to your specific research paper. A research paper does not only evaluate your knowledge in a certain area, but also your writing and analytical skills, abilities to express own thoughts, own writing style etc.

So, in order to write an impressive research paper you have to devote some time to preparations, especially if you do not have much experience in academic writing. In case you doubt that you can cope with the task, make sure you look for professional assistance. Consult essay writing companies, like P rof E ssays. Here you will be offered top quality custom essay writing services.

Writing a research paper is more technical and detailed than writing an essay. However, writing a research paper is similar with writing an essay in some ways. Just as an essay requires an essay format, students must also note that a research paper format is also necessary for a research paper. The format to be used is dependent on the topic which you have chosen. P rof E ssays.

However, it remains that the format used on research papers has similar elements.

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Scientific research paper guidelines, - Persuasive essay on graffiti. If you need a custom written essay, term paper, research paper on a general topic, or a typical high school, college or university level assignment, you .

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format for the paper Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research. A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research .

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How to format a research paper using either MLA or APA guidelines. General Format for Writing a Scientific Paper. Preparing a scientific paper develops your ability to organize ideas logically, think clearly, and express yourself accurately and concisely. Mastery of these skills would be an asset for any career that you may pursue. · state the objectives of the research, ·.

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Download free Sample of Research Paper Format, Sample Research Paper, MLA and APA Research Paper Templates! Find out Proper Formatted Custom Research Papers. Learn about Scientific Research Paper Format, Outline format, and find a good research paper sample. The task of writing a scientific paper and submitting it to a journal for publication is a time‐consuming and often daunting task. 3,4 Barriers to effective writing include lack of experience, poor writing habits, writing anxiety, unfamiliarity with the requirements of scholarly writing, lack of confidence in writing ability, fear of failure.