Since , the United Nations and its specialized agencies, several international associations and institutions, international peace movements, global and national level human rights movements and in fact all members of the international community have been consistently and strongly advocating the need for the preservation and promotion of peace against war. In contemporary times, the most urgent and important international objective has been to preserve protect and defend peace against terrorism and terrorist organizations like A1 Qacda, Talibans, and other enemies of peace.
Through international peace keeping under the aegis of the United Nations through the development and use of international law; creation of more international and regional institutions committed to promote peace, promotion of friendly cooperation for development among the member countries; popularization of peaceful means of conflict-resolution, institutionalization of relations among nations; integration of international community through strengthening of human consciousness in favour of peace against war; and by enhancing the ability for crisis-management, the humankind has been trying to secure peace against war.
One elementary way of defining peace has been to say that peace is absence of war. This is, however, a very narrow view of peace.
No doubt absence of war is the first condition of peace, yet peace is not merely an absence of war. It is in reality a condition characterised by peaceful, cooperative and harmonious conduct of international relations with a view to secure all-round sustainable development of the people of the world. Nevertheless, since absence of war is the first condition of peace, one of the major concerns of all scholars and statesmen has been to formulate and follow the principles and devices needed for securing this primary objective.
The cold war that kept the world preoccupied during , indirectly secured this objective in a negative way by developing a balance of terror in international relations. While it was successful in preventing a global war, it failed to prevent local wars and in fact gave rise to several tensions, stresses, strains and crises in international relations.
The international community had to work very hard for keeping the conflicts and wars limited. It, however, successfully exhibited a welcome and positive ability in the sphere of crisis-management. In fact, till today there have been present several hindrances in way of securing a stable, healthy and enduring peace.
Fortunately, the final end of cold war came in the last decade of the 20th century and the world found herself living is an environment characterised by a new faith and commitment to peace, peaceful co-existence, peaceful conflict-resolution, liberalisation, cooperation for development and attempts at sustainable development. Tolstoy's ultimate parallelism, however, is keynoted in his title, with the polar qualities of war and peace providing the physical and emotional settings of incidents that further investigate the duality between collective life and individual life.
Events that occur in peacetime are often echoed during the war scenes, and the perspective Tolstoy achieves from these twice-told incidents deepens our understanding of the moral truths he wishes to underscore. When we compare the"peacefulness" of the first campaigns depicted in the novel with the death duel of the battle of Borodino, we see how Tolstoy uses this duality to intensify our feelings for the event that forms the turning point of the war.
The sunrise over Borodino, on the other hand, illuminates a scene of carnage and desperation while the grim survivors face death every moment. Numerous minor incidents illustrate how Tolstoy uses the settings of war and of peace to reveal new aspects of particular situations. Pierre, for example, meets Osip Bazdyev during a peacetime journey that sets him on a new moral path. Osip's influence here foreshadows Pierre's ultimate conversion through Karataev, Bazdyev's spiritual counterpart, which occurs during Bezuhov's wartime experiences.
Natasha, to provide another example, has two major meetings and partings with Andrey: Prince Andrey's first awareness of death, occurring in peacetime when he sees Liza die, prefigures his own fatal moment on the Austerlitz battlefield.
Moreover, Dolohov, to cite a minor character, exercises his cruelty against Nikolay during a card game, then against the drummer boy whom he wants shot during the last campaigns. The first instance of vengeance is necessary to explain Dolohov's character, whereas the second is another expression of that cruelty which helps Dolohov win battles.
The structural integrity of War and Peace thus derives from Tolstoy's two-leveled handling of his material through the vehicles of characterization, narrative, and setting.
Individual parts of the novel are integrated into the whole through this parallel plot technique which, moreover, allows the author to enrich the significance of particular incidents by repeating them in another context. This duality enables Tolstoy to compare the nature of private experience with historical events, the"inner" and"outer" states of the human condition, unconscious with conscious motives, and, finally, to illustrate the conflict between"free will" and"necessity.
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Chapters 1—6 Book I: Chapters 7—21 Book I: Chapters 22—25 Book II: Chapters 1—8 Book II: Chapters 9—21 Book III: Chapters 1—5 Book III: Chapters 6—8 Book III: Chapters 9—19 Book IV: Chapters 1—6 Book IV: Chapters 7—9 Book IV: Chapters 10—16 Book V: Chapters 1—14 Book V: Chapters 15—22 Book VI: Chapters 1—10 Book VI: Chapters 6—22 Book IX: Chapters 1—7 Book IX: Chapters 8—15 Book IX:
But, somehow, in spite of all pious intentions the war clouds still hover over the horizons in this part of the world or that and permanent peace seems just a dream worthy to be fulfilled but not fully fulfilled.
Peace. It is something that a man says he keeps by fighting a war. The correct meaning of peace is only emphasized by Victor Hugo’s quote ‘Peace is the virtue of civilization and war is its crime. ’ Peace is a feeling of being a human that can only be achieved by understanding and not [ ].
War and Peace The greater threat to world peace in the 20s, 30s, and 40s is a point that could be argued and debated upon for essays on piles of essays. The true threats of world peace were those who were naïve enough to believe that a people can be totally humiliated as the Germans were in the Treaty of Versailles following World War I and. The main theories that explain policy decisions about war and peace are the theories of realism, pacifism, just-war, and the requirement of discrimination theory. The just-war theory is currently being applied to Iraq by the United States, which can help rid the world of weapons of mass destruction/5(11).
- War and Peace The greater threat to world peace in the 20s, 30s, and 40s is a point that could be argued and debated upon for essays on piles of essays. The true threats of world peace were those who were naïve enough to believe that a people can be totally humiliated as the Germans were in the Treaty of Versailles following World War I and. Apr 29, · War And Peace more ambitious. But still, essentially, I believe a lot of these things. In War and Peace, Leo Tolstoy writes that history cannot be shaped.