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Federalist No. 10

by James Madison

❶Hamilton, Jay, and Madison are tasked with publishing essays in the newspaper to get people on board with the new Federal Government. In his book An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States , Beard argued that Madison produced a detailed explanation of the economic factors that lay behind the creation of the Constitution.

Brief Summary

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Analysis of Federalist #51
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They're a group of citizens, however big or small, who are united by a specific interest that puts them against another group of citizens and their specific interests. There are two ways to stop factions: Remove its causes, or control its effects. The downside to the first thing is that factions are a by-product of having opinions in general and the freedom to express them.

You can't go into someone's brain and get rid of their opinions—in maybe, but at least not in —and getting rid of people's freedom of expression kind of flies in the face of the whole democracy thing.

It would be like launching your house into space to put out a fire. Fire can't burn without that pesky oxygen pesky freedom, in this analogy , but you also need oxygen to breathe. What gets even worse is that everyone has an interest. A creditor and a debtor would have vastly different opinions about the economy, and so would a farmer versus a manufacturer.

People also tend to support things that benefit themselves, and in a democracy there's nothing really stopping the biggest faction from calling the shots. An example of self-interest in government is setting taxes. A government has to set taxes to function, but when it's deciding how much money to take for itself, there's always the temptation to skim a little extra off the top.

So, that's a no-go on cause-preventing. But luckily, we can cut down on the worst effects of Factions by governing. By changing the US to a Representative Democracy, big potentially dangerous ideas get filtered down into a smaller set of trained government officials, who will take them and use their best judgment on them. Representatives also can be corrupt, so this system hopefully keeps those people in check by cutting down their influence. This idea of checks and balances became a crucial document in the establishment of the modern U.

One of its most important ideas, an explanation of check and balances, is the often quoted phrase, "Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. In creating this system, Madison's idea was that the politicians and the individuals in public service in the U. The logical solution to ensure that laws and strong ideas were not enacted by a small group of partisan individuals was to use a federalist system where each level of government had different branches, each branch having the authority to impact legislation proposed by other branches.

One of the main ways that Federalist Paper 51 was able to encourage checks and balances was by emphasizing the word liberty and by describing that liberty would directly result from the implementation of these governmental concepts. Further, Madison emphasized that although the branches were meant to have checks and balances, the branches would only function to their fullest extent if they were independent of one another.

The "if men were angels" quote was meant to imply that not everyone has communal interests in mind and that certain governmental officials are inevitably going to push legislation that is in their own interests, rather than in the interests of their constituents.

Madison emphasized that a system of checks and balances would prevent this from happening and he uses the quote to show that checks and balances are necessary because men are not necessarily all angels.

This also ties back into the ideas of liberty and equal opportunity that Madison seems to be trying to emphasize through this Federalist paper. In addition, the original idea of checks and balances was a European idea that had roots in the enlightenment period. Political philosophers such as Locke and Rousseau had ideas that related to this proposal. Further, the idea of a representative democracy as a method of establishing these checks and balances is something that is a pivotal component to the federalist paper, mostly because it helps understand how the different branches of government will be put into place.

We also see this idea of checks in balances in other countries, prior to the establishment of this system in the United States. This suggests that the idea of political separation of powers and of checks and balances in government that was implemented in the Unites States is a universal concept that is concrete in political theory.

The inclusion of this theory in Federalist 51 is merely reiteration of a sentiment that was already present on an international scale. The Federalist Papers , as a foundation text of constitutional interpretation, are commonly cited by American jurists and court systems in general. Of all The Federalist papers, No. The purpose of No. The biggest threats to the government of the United States would be the ability of one governing branch to obtain too much power over another, and of factions to cause a tyranny of the majority.

Madison's key point is that the members of each department should have as little dependence as possible on the members of the other departments, and to stay independent, their own department must not encroach on the others. To secure these ends, Madison suggests that "the great security against a gradual concentration of the several powers in the same department" is to enable each department or the leader of the department to fend off attempts to encroach upon the government of each other's departments.

Each branch should have as little influence as possible in the appointment of members of other branches, and should also retain financial independence from one another to prevent corruption. In a republican form of government, Madison asserts, the legislative branch is the strongest, and therefore must be divided into different branches, be as little connected with each other as possible, and render them by different modes of election. He deems the legislative branch to be the strongest since it is essentially the true voice of the people.

Before the Seventeenth Amendment , only the House of Representatives was chosen directly by the people. The Senate was chosen by state legislatures. He stresses the need for the checks and balances. The government is guarded against usurpations because it is divided into distinct and separate departments. In , power over people was divided both through federalism between the federal government and the state governments and through branches legislative , executive , and judicial within the national or federal government.

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The Federalist Papers study guide contains a biography of Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

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A free, easy-to-understand summary of The Federalist Papers 10 and 51 that covers all of the key plot points in the document.

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Summary of Federalist Paper 10 of The Federalist Papers 10 and Get a line-by-line breakdown of this section of the text to be sure you're picking up what The Federalist Papers 10 and 51 is . federalist paper 10 and Garrett myers p.1 STUDY. PLAY. federalist paper james madison argues for the adoption of the constitution, federalist paper 10 (written in ) argues that a strong central government can guard against the "factionalism" of smaller republics, a broad, strong national government that should remain non.

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Summary. Madison begins perhaps the most famous of the Federalist papers by stating that one of the strongest arguments in favor of the Constitution is the fact that it establishes a government capable of controlling the violence and damage caused by factions. The Federalist No. 10 | The Federalist No. The Federalist Paper No. 10 The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection.