We observe that ownership structure and management have significant bearing on internationalization strategies of family firms, as family owners and managers are more averse to internationalization.
Family firms' aversion to internationalize is more pronounced when families can exercise greater control on firms' actions through the combined effect of higher family ownership primarily through strategic control and family's participation in management through strategic, administrative, and operational control.
However, certain contingencies, such as the higher ownership of foreign institutions and presence of professional managers, help business families improve their understanding of international markets, reduce the fear of the unknown, and better appreciate the benefits of internationalization, thereby aiding greater internationalization of family firms. Published Papers Singha, Sumanta. Published Papers Bhatnagar, Navneet. Published Papers Subramanian, Krishnamurthy. Since banking is intrinsically an opaque activity, we hypothesize that an incoming CEO of a bank is more likely to manage earnings than a counterpart in a non- financial firm.
To identify the hypothesized effects, we exploit exogenous variation generated by age-based CEO retirement policies in Indian public sector firms. This decrease occurs due to increased provisions, though such provisions do not associate with increased non-performing assets subsequently.
In contrast to banks, we observe no earnings management coinciding with CEO turnover for other public sector firms. As evidence of motivation, we show that earnings management increases likelihood of directorship positions in other firms within two years of retirement. Published Papers Batra, Rishtee Kumar.
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