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TQM Research Paper

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Total Quality Management and Organizational Performance
Total Quality Management Research Paper
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At this stage of the implementation process, it is important to communicate TQM to the entire organization. Communication is important throughout the implementation stage.

Communication is necessary to create TQM awareness interest, desire, and action. Everyone needs to be trained in quality awareness and problem solving. This training is conducted when the employee is placed on a project team or the work group is ready for the training.

Customer, employee, and supplier surveys must be conducted to benchmark the attitudes of these three stakeholders. Information from these surveys provides ideas for quality improvement projects.

The quality council determines the quality improvement projects. In addition the council establishes the project teams and work groups and monitors their progress. There is often a tendency to rush the implementation process.

On the other hand, Karlee, a Malcolm Baldrige. Implementation of TQM is described in the next chapter, on leadership. This section gives information concerning the obstacles associated with implementation. Many organizations, especially small ones with a niche, are comfortable with their current state. The first eight most common were determined by Robert J. Masters after an extensive literature search and the last obstacle added by the authors They are given below.

According to a survey of manufacturing firms in Georgia, the benefits of TQM are improved quality, employee participation, teamwork, working relationships, customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, productivity, communication, profitability, and market share.

They showed that there is a strong link between TQM and financial performance. They then selected a control group similar in size and industry to the award winners. Performance of both groups was compared during the five years prior to the award and five years after winning the award. No difference was shown between the two groups prior to the award. In addition, the study showed that small organizations out performed larger organizations.

There is no universal definition of leadership and indeed many books have been devoted to the tonic of leadership. In his book Leadership, James MacGregor Bums describes a leader as one who instills purposes, not one who controls by brute force.

A leader strengthens and inspires the followers to accomplish shared goals. As stated in its core values and concepts, visionary leadership is-. The directions, values, and expectations should balance the needs of all your stakeholders. The values and strategies should help guide all activities and decisions of your organization. Senior leaders should serve as role models through their ethical behavior and their personal involvement in planning, communications, coaching, development of future leaders, review of organizational performance, and employee recognition.

As role models, they can reinforce values and expectations while building leadership, commitment, and initiative throughout your organization. Leadership can be difficult to define.

However, successful quality leaders tend to have certain characteristics. In order to become successful, leadership requires an intuitive understanding of human nature the basic needs, wants, and abilities of people. Everyone is responsible for quality, especially senior management and the CEO; however, only the latter can provide the leadership system to achieve results.

The General Electric training courses taught leadership approaches and models and provided the opportunity for teams to develop solutions to real business problems. Many of the solutions the teams developed were implemented.

Jack Welch supported the development of a leadership system whereby quality control leaders were developed at all levels in all functions of the organization, including research, marketing, manufacturing, sales, finance, and human resources. Senior managers need to be provided with the skills to implement quality control techniques and actively participate in the quality council.

Senior management has numerous responsibilities. Management should get out of the office and visit customers, suppliers, departments within the organization, and plants within the organization.

That way, managers learn what is happening with a particular customer, supplier, or project. MBWA can substantially reduce paperwork. Encourage subordinates to write only important messages that need to be part of the permanent record. This approach is an excellent technique for gaining firsthand information. The idea is to let employees think for themselves.

Push problem solving and decision making to the lowest appropriate level by delegating authority and responsibility. Senior managers must stay informed on the topic of quality improvement by reading books and articles, attending seminars, and talking to other TQM leaders.

The leader sends a strong message to subordinates when that leader asks if they have read a part ocular book or article. This activity is an excellent opportunity to reinforce the importance of the effort and to promote TQM. One of the duties of the quality council is to establish or revise the recognition and reward system.

Also, provisions must be made to reward teams as well as creative individuals. Senior managers must be visibly and actively engaged in the quality effort by sending on teams, coaching teams, and teaching seminars. They should lead by demonstrating, communicating, and reinforcing the quality statements.

As a rule of thumb, they should spend about one third of their time on quality. A very important role of senior managers is listening to internal and external customers and suppliers through visits, focus groups, and surveys.

This information is translated into core values and process improvement projects. Another very important role is communication. In addition to internal efforts, there must be external activities with customers and suppliers, the media, advertising in trade magazines, and interaction with the quality community.

By following the preceding suggestions, senior managers should be able to drive fear out of the organization, break down barriers, remove system roadblocks, anticipate and minimize resistance to change, and, in general, change the culture.

Only with the involvement of senior management can TQM be a success. The most important asset of any organization is its customers. Customers that are satisfied will increase in number, buy more, and buy more frequently. Satisfied customers also pay their bills promptly, which greatly improves cash flow the lifeblood of any organization. Increasingly, manufacturing and service organizations are using customer satisfaction as the measure of quality.

The importance of customer satisfaction is not only due to national competition but also due to worldwide competition. Since customer satisfaction is hard to measure, the measurement often is not precise.

As with most attitudes, there is variability among people, and often within the same person at different times. Often, due to the difficulty of measuring feelings, customer satisfaction strategies are developed around clearly stated, logical customer opinions, and the emotional issues of a purchase are disregarded. This can be a costly mistake. Customer satisfaction should not be viewed in a vacuum. For example, a customer may be satisfied with a product or service and therefore rate the product or service highly in a survey, and yet that same customer may buy another product or service.

The value customers place on one product compared to another may be a better indicator of customer loyalty. Customer loyalty can be sustained only by maintaining a favorable comparison when compared with competitors.

As mentioned before customer satisfaction is not a simple concept to understand or to measure. Involving employees, empowering them and bringing them into the decision making process provides the opportunity for continuous process improvement.

The untapped ideas, innovations, and creative thoughts of employees can make the difference between success and failure. Competition is so fierce that it would be unwise not to use every available tool.

Employee involvement improves quality and increases productivity, because. Quality based organizations should strive to achieve perfection by continuously improving the business and production processes.

Of course, perfection is impossible because the race is never over; however, we must continually strive for its attainment. It is an effective improvement technique.

The four steps in the cycle are exactly as stated. First, plan carefully what is to be done. Next, carry out the plan does it. Third, study the results did the plan work as intended, or was the results different? Using the knowledge learned, develop an improved plan and repeat the cycle. The PDSA cycle is a simple adaptation of the more elaborate problem solving method discussed in the next section.

The problem solving method also called the scientific method has many variations depending, to some extent, on the use; however, they are all similar. The phases are integrated because each phase is dependent upon the previous phase. Continuous process improvement is the objective, and these phases are the framework to achieve that objective. The objective of this phase is to identify and prioritize opportunities for improvement.

It consists of three parts: Problems can be identified from a variety of inputs. One of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award core values is managing by fact rather than by gut feeling.

Managing an organization without performance measures is like a captain of a ship navigating without instrumentation. The role of management can be sensed in every step along the way. It provides leadership, develops the vision, establishes objectives, pursues strategy, establishes and monitors planning, monitors implementation, provides policy, conveys commitment, assures resources, eliminates barriers, participates, appoints responsibilities, assures customer satisfaction, presents information and the list goes on and on.

It is responsible for shaking the barriers, i. Senior management must provide inspirational vision of the ultimate goal to be achieved. Serious investment in the human resource: Empowerment, Teamwork, Training For any quality campaign to be successful, you need top-down active leadership that facilitates real change and a bottom-up quality management improvement process in order to achieve real sustainable bottom line results.

Only when employees develop a sense of ownership, will they embark upon it with true enthusiasm and motivation. Delivery of quality implies a commitment and dedication, not only by senior management, but also by every single person within the organization, and sometimes outside of it. Harnessing the skills and enthusiasm of everyone is conditioned on providing employees with the adequate skills, tools, and authority to adapt to and adopt their new roles.

Empowerment and other associated ideas such a participative management, delegation of authority, and decentralization are based on placing responsibility for making decisions in the hands of workers. As one CEO put it: Empowerment is not optional, rather a pre-requisite and can be considered one of the basic pillars of both technique. From the concept of empowerment follows the concept of group-work or teamwork.

Teamwork is a technique where by individual members of a team work together to achieve a common goal. Teams are an essential structural ingredient of both approaches. Teams are needed to meet the challenges of the environment. The increased value placed on empowering employees as a means of improving productivity while simultaneously improving employee satisfaction leads to increased reliance on teams. Employees need to work together to meet new challenges.

The theme is central to both TQM and BPR, as it aids communication, improves cooperation, reduces internal competition and duplication of effort, and maximizes talents of employees on a project. The need for fewer layers of management and more information for better communication and more efficiency will arise.

Decreasing hierarchy will also remove organizational blockages to critical change. Hence, employee empowerment will facilitate and quicken the pace of work.

Jack Welch, CEO of General Electric and leader of its rebirth in the s and the s, has become the spokesperson for organizational change. He described the critical importance of cross-functional teams and project teams in the new flattened architecture of GE with fewer layers of management. Cross-functional teams are essential to implement the new managerial role to yield increased value to customers. As such, reorienting an organization towards quality requires teamwork, both horizontally and vertically, given the fact that teamwork can be very powerful as weaknesses and strengths of individuals are balanced, brainstorming enhanced, and skills and knowledge concentrated.

It is vital to build profound knowledge in teams about the business, customers, associates, best practices, technology, and other factors related to the organization. As such, training is a must.

Learning must precede thinking and a solid foundation for creative thinking need be established through benchmarking. Organizations are so intent on pushing forward with the new that they forget to help employees let go of the old, thus, overlooking the personal losses of employees involves with change. They often hold on, resisting change. The reasons for this resistance include perceived loss of identity, value and worth in the eyes of the organization, disorientation, and the risk of failure.

Providing training is imperative, especially in the area of team member effectiveness that focuses on skills of active listening, resource sharing, conflict resolution, negotiation, and interpersonal skills including how to handle contributions, input, and feedback from others about the work. At the same time, upper level management may require training in self-directed team activities to understand what their employees are doing.

While an organization may have had in place an extensive training program prior to TQM or BPR, there is no guarantee that the program in place will focus on the skills and abilities needed after the change has occurred. Training should focus on both the technical abilities in the new roles as well as interpersonal skills. Training on teamwork, trust, and decision-making must be emphasized to aid employees in adapting to their new roles.

Enhanced individual skills and attributes will better enable teams to be more flexible and responsive to change. Successful change attempts are heavily dependent on training the human resource. An organization stands and falls with the people in it. This includes managing for fear and resistance to change. The selection and application of relevant performance metrics is critical to achieving success.

Performance metrics must fit the business objectives and must be customer focused and driven. As such, a company should use the same measures as their customers in order to create a common ground for evaluating performance.

Results should be directly measurable in terms of customer satisfaction, process cost, process quality, process speed, and ultimately in increased shareholder value and capital creation. Process reengineering approaches process improvement in a drastic manner wiping out the old and putting in place new processes.

While process management is based on the concept of continuous, evolutionary improvement, process reengineering searches for breakthrough improvements and revolutionary methods for doing work. To encourage a radical organizational rethink, the starting point for reengineering is a blank sheet of paper. The reengineering effort tears apart the current process and systematically rebuilds it. A number of authors view organizational improvement activities as points on a continuum ranging from incremental improvement to radical change.

Due to its focus on existing processes, TQM will rarely lead to radical innovation; rather it brings about change in a snowball effect so that the end result shows significant departure from the initial state of affairs; but still change and improvement are no more than incremental.

It is within this context that the debate arises as to whether or not BPR, as a vehicle of radical change and innovation, is becoming a substitute for the incremental improvement of TQM. The logic behind it is that as the external environment is becoming more volatile and a more radical approach to change is needed.

Separating those responsible for scrutinizing the process from those charged with identifying the role of IT guards against any biases or hindrances created by current system limitations, processes, people, or activities.

Michael Hammer advocated beginning the reengineering process with a clean slate ignoring past business approaches and working toward a complete redesign of the entire organization. Risk and Pay-back Period: As such, high risk due to radical change is a natural consequence of BPR. Reengineering programs promise significant benefits — higher margins, lower expenses, and improved productivity, to name a few.

But these efficiencies are seldom gained without trade-offs. Risk managers need to devise training programs that will help minimize the impact of change.

Reengineering without training and education is unthinkable. Risk management is an inherent part of reengineering. Companies must assess the risks associated with changing business processes. It involves neither the radical nor the dramatic changes that are an intrinsic part of BPR; rather TQM addresses the organization from a cultural standpoint that works on changing attitudes and behaviors over a long time period.

A short-term focus in TQM weakens the organization and rarely ensures that the ultimate goal is achieved and sustained. It frustrates the people involved because they quickly realize that it takes time to develop the skills, attitudes, and knowledge required to make a difference to customers and to the bottom line. A long term focus, however, signals strong unwavering commitment and eventually wins over the people who must make it all happen.

A long-term focus and a sense of urgency are entirely compatible attitudes in TQM and, in fact, are the right ones. BPR, on the other hand, is a one strike or one shot thing.

Its relative short time frame results in quick outcomes, which renders it even more risky. Changing attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs is the most difficult and lengthy process and organization can undergo.

Strategy and Customer TQM programs have highlighted the role of processes in delivering quality. However, TQM programs have placed greater emphasis on the people and techniques aspects rather than on the process elements. Implementations of TQM programs, in addition, have often reinforced functional boundaries, overlaying the concept of the internal customer as a means of improving the process interfaces between departments.

The clear focus of BPR is processes and minimizing the non-value added content in them. Becoming process oriented is all about being customer outcome oriented. The target of the organizational change is the business process, and not the organizational culture, as is the case with TQM.

The effectiveness of the change effort can, thus, be assessed with respect to the performance of those processes, not with respect to changes in attitudes, values, and beliefs. Advantages and Disadvantages While most researchers and practitioners agree that failures of TQM and BPR, in most cases, are mainly due to misapplications, this does not abolish theory pitfalls.

Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages and bring about improvements, as well as handicaps.

BPR rates highly in terms of innovation and IT utilization, while TQM provides the best practices for continuous improvement and customer satisfaction. BPR In addition to its dramatic quantum leaps, innovative opportunities, and short time frame, BPR possesses the privilege of exploiting Information Technology capabilities.

However, its revolutionary nature can be very stressful on the human component of the organization and financially exhaustive. Information technology has become a key enabler for organizational change and is conceived as a mandatory component of all reengineering efforts.

It is viewed as a one of the tools for achieving business process redesign. Information technology can provide help in managing large amounts if information efficiently. It can also provide significant improvements in operational performance by short-circuiting supply chains and industry value systems, and it can allow companies to re-consider their business scope.

On an operational level, technological solutions can reduce manual work by creating electronic workflow and automating clerical routine tasks. IT also plays an important role in supporting knowledge workers by delivering information timely and accurately, and by facilitating communication and networking.

Every case of guest dissatisfaction should be reported using guest-incident action forms. Every work area is supervised by three teams charged with problem solving, strategic planning, and setting quality-certification standards for each set of job duties. Daily quality reports are collected from each of the work areas in the hotel.

They can be used as a warning signal for detecting problems that can be an obstacle for fulfilling quality and customer-satisfaction standards. By these means, Ritz Carlton ensures that quality is not compromised and all employees are involved in running the business Partlow, Implementation of TQM in the hotel industry has apparent advantages, such as increased customer and employee satisfaction, elimination of wasted effort, and focus on efficiency.

However, there are certain disadvantages as well. By virtue of intangibility of services and subjectivity of delivery evaluation, TQM in the hospitality industry might be hard to ensure.

However, if all TQM principles are construed correctly and implemented fully, an increase in efficiency can be achieved by an organization from any field. Ritz Carlton hotel is a brilliant example of a hotel chain that maintains a competitive edge due to practicing TQM.

It was one of the first hotel chains to pioneer this approach to management. Nowadays it is a classical example of a successful organization committed to quality and customer satisfaction, development of employees and strong corporate persona. Ritz Carlton achieves TQM in catering through ensuring food quality, service availability, anticipating and fulfilling customer needs, and offering well-trained and committed staff. Understanding customer relationship management CRM: People, process and technology.

Business Process Management Journal, 9 5: Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. Retrieved July 7, , from http: The Journal of Business, 71 2: Clinical Performance and Quality Health Care, 8 3: Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 34 4: Managing information technology IT for one-to-one customer interaction.

Is confidentiality as important to you as the high quality of the product? Try our writing service at EssayLib. We can offer you professional assistance at affordable rates. Proceed with the order form below: Feel free to visit EssayLib. Introduction This research paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Total Quality Management TQM in relation to the hotel and leisure industry. Theoretical Background There is little consensus among researchers and practitioners concerning the most appropriate definition of Total Quality Management TQM.

Read more about TQM research paper writing help from experts! Organizational Communication and Service Availability It has been noted above that communicating the message of quality is essential for achieving TQM.

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RESEARCH PAPER Total quality management (TQM) strategy and organisational characteristics: Evidence from a recent WTO member Dinh Thai Hoanga, Barbara Igelb∗ and Tritos Laosirihongthongc aUniversity of Economics, Hochiminh City, Vietnam; bSchool of Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani , Thailand; .

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Apr 25,  · Free sample research paper on TQM topic. Free term paper on Total Quality Management online. At russianescortsinuae.tk you will find a lot of sample SWOT analysis essays and case studies on Management.

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Total Quality Management (TQM) defined Total Quality Management (TQM) is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is a proven technique to guarantee survival in world‑class competition. encourage Researchers to address many topics related to Total Quality management and Continuous improvements. Each has his own approach. Each reveals findings and results. This paper is a comparative analysis of some of the researchers approaches concerning Total quality Management Applications, Models, principles and aims.

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TQM research papers overview total quality management concepts. APA case studies are helpful in understanding the uses of TQM for today's managers and corporations. This research paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Total Quality Management (TQM) in relation to the hotel and leisure industry. More specifically, it will analyze the application of TQM principles to catering services in the hotel industry.