Epidemiology is, simply put, the study of the pattern of diseases in populations, and the causes and consequences of such patterns. Theories relating to specific patterns for specific diseases and health outcomes are, primarily, the concern of other disciplines.
Prior to writing Concepts of Epidemiology , 5 , 6 I questioned the need for another book given that about 20 postgraduate epidemiological texts were already available. More attention to making theory explicit was one of the motivating factors for me. In doing this I hope to counter the mounting criticism that epidemiology is an atheoretical discipline. The inspiration for emphasizing theory came, to a considerable extent, from reading papers by Nancy Krieger.
Figure 1 Figure The fundamental influences on health and disease include natural changes in the environment; environmental changes arising from human invention, discovery, and manipulation; changes in the interaction between humans, microbes, and animals usually for cultural reasons; changes in human circumstances, cultures, and behaviours; and the genetic evolution of microbes, animals, and humans.
The basis of population differences in health and disease pattern: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology. Oxford University Press, 6. These complex and interacting influences, exerting their effect over long spans of time for human genetic effects, likely to be measured in hundreds or thousands of years , are the underlying causes of population patterns in disease.
Their initial impact may be on individuals and families or small groups. Over time, due to their varying circumstances, populations begin to differ from each other, leading to the population patterns in disease and health that epidemiologists describe symbolized in the triad of time, place, and person. Epidemiological methods are designed to quantify variations in diseases and in their causes, to seek and quantify associations between them, and to generate and test resultant hypotheses, which are usually couched in more specific terms than above.
Nonetheless, they are embedded in the above framework of influencing factors. Variations in disease frequency give rise to hypotheses which might help to explain the patterns observed, and give insight into the natural history and causes of disease.
I articulated an epidemiological theory of why the patterns of diseases in populations vary so much. Also if the immune system is weak and the person is not able to fight off the infection, the individual will develop the active disease, become sick and spread the bacteria to others. About 5 to 10 percent of these people will develop the TB disease at some time of their life.
Active TB treatment consist multiple antibiotic being given simultaneously for at least six month to cure the disease. The regimen is four antibiotic for the first two months and then decreased to two antibiotics for the last two months. Most of the antibiotics are given in pill form. The antibiotics of choice are listed in generic form as follow, ethambutol, Isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampin, cycloserine, ethionamide, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, para- aminosalicylic acid, and streptomycin.
Sometimes steroids medication are used if inflammation is present. But the medicine has to be taken as prescribed. If doses of medication are missed this can cause a delay in curing the disease. The Latent TB treatment consist of the antibiotic isoniazid for six to twelve months to prevent the TB disease from progressing to an active status for most people. But also taking a mixture of two antibiotics for 3 months is a good way to treat latent TB, but a health care provider has to monitor the person taking the medication in order to prevent the latent TB from becoming active due to a person missing medications Everyday Health, A person lung can become permanently damage if the treatment are not started early.
Difficulty in breathing can developed, the infection can travel to other organs in the body and also the infectious disease can developed a resistance to the medications. A person not taking their medicine as prescribe can cause a resistance to the medications and make the disease tougher to cure Rodriquez, There has been an escalation in the resistance of TB drugs that has been used for years.
This resistance has affected every country that has been surveyed. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis MDR-TB happens when the top two medication, Isoniazid and Rifampicin are taken and the bacteria does not respond to medication. It is treatable and curable but is more expensive. When the extensive chemotherapy is used in the treatment of MDR-TB, it takes up to two years to treat the disease and can cause a severe reaction in a person World Health Organization, Tuberculosis can be misdiagnosed because the symptoms may be the same symptoms of other diseases.
It is vital to take a good health history and physical examination. Taking a blood test and Tuberculin skin test can determine if the person has been infected or exposed to active TB.
A chest X-ray is needed to see lesions on the lungs that is caused by tuberculosis. A sputum sample is obtained to confirm the present of the TB bacteria Centered for Disease Control and Prevention, Some people has to be admitted into the hospital and placed in a special room that filters out TB bacteria out of the air.
This will prevent health care workers and other people in the hospital from contracting the TB infection. It is likely that a person is not to leave the room until 3 sputum samples are obtained and shows that a person can no longer spread the infection Everyday Health, Also the side effect of the strong drugs use has to be monitor.
Some drugs can cause the liver to become inflamed, kidney and nerve damage and changes in vision. Death can occur if TB is not treated and cured Rodriquez, There were about 8.
TB is around the third cause of death in women age 15 to The Millennium Developmental Goal for is to overturn the spread of TB, which as of now the number of people contracting TB decreasing each year but very slowly. This describe the host or the person that is affected by the disease and what made the individual more acceptable to contact TB.
The Agent Factor of Tuberculosis is a bacteria known as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis that is transmitted through the air from respiratory droplets World Health Organization, The Environment contains the air, family, community, public policy, and workplace, economic status, housing population, and culture and health services.
All of these can affect the person before and after TB is contracted. The person living in a crowed population is most at risk of being exposed to TB. The family and the community is at risk for receiving and spreading TB. If the public does not have a policy to protect individuals, put them at a high risk. The Community Health nurse is responsible for assessing the community for communicable diseases and needs of the community and start the process and report findings to the appropriate person or group.
The nurse take on the role as the teacher, educator, and counselor. It is important for the nurse to help prevent the spread of disease and illness in the community by providing education. The health and social needs are to be assessed.
The nurse is knowledgeable of infectious diseases and familiar with epidemiologic data in order to assess the needs and problems in a given community. The nursing process must be used with the principles of epidemiology in order to provide the appropriate care.
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Introduction Epidemiology is defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related stated or events in specific populations and the application of this .
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