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Sampling and Samples

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## An Overview of Different Data Sampling Techniques

❶Bases of stratification Intuitively, it seems clear that the best basis would be the frequency distribution of the principal variable being studied.
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For instance — if the population constitutes a list of names, the respondents may be selected as every fifth person on the list. These sampling techniques are more convenient than the techniques discussed on the first page. However, one must note that the data thus obtained is not as reliable or as accurate as the data obtained through probability sampling.

In most cases, these techniques are put to use in large scale surveys where it is difficult to use any of the probability sampling techniques, due to unavailability of accurate information about the population. Also, it is important to note here that with these non-probability techniques for sampling, it is quite likely that some elements of the population may not get selected as respondents.

There are again four commonly used non-probability techniques, which are discusses below. As simple as it sounds, the criteria for selecting the respondents is entirely based on who are readily available or are easy to contact. This technique is so convenient that at times, this is referred to as a convenience technique.

Since, this technique involves surveying only those respondents who are easily available; it makes the survey fairly easy and economical to conduct. However, the convenience seriously jeopardizes the reliability of the data obtained. This is an improvised version of the above technique, which involves fixing up quotas so that the respondents bear some specific characteristics — based on their ratio of existence within the population.

Purposive or Dimensional Sampling. A further extension of the quota sampling is the purposive technique, which is also commonly referred to as dimensional sampling. It takes into account more than one characteristic and requires that at least some specific percentage of the respondents represent all of these characteristics.

This technique works in a very unique way and the sampling begins with the selection of one respondent from the population, based on certain characteristics. This person is then asked to identify the respondents that should be included in the survey. The procedure may be repeated until the desired numbers of respondents have been surveyed. The researcher has a wide range of sampling techniques to choose from, and the best way to decide on which technique should be used is to keep the desired outcome of the survey in mind.

Simple Random Sampling As the name indicates, this technique for sampling involves selecting the respondents, at random, from a list of the population. Stratified Random Sampling This technique requires that the population is divided into two or more subgroups — based on a certain variable. Cluster Sampling This technique involves dividing the population into clusters and selecting only a few clusters from the population to participate in the survey. There are two prime reasons why this technique is used — there is not much information available about the population or the cost and feasibility of using any.

Some methods, much more so than others, are suitable for specific types of marketing research. Some sampling methods are truly random in that each member of the specific population has an equal chance of being selected; this chance of selection can be represented as a probability i.

This is one of the simplest and most commonly used forms of probability sampling. There are multiple ways to approach the random selection process to ensure that each member of the population has an equal chance of selection. The key is that the respondents are chosen randomly. Although there is no guarantee, when you choose a random sample of participants from a pool, it should be representative to the makeup of the population as a whole.

A school district is hoping to learn more about their students. Their student body consists of 10, people and they want to send survey invitations to of them. The total sample of students is randomly sorted and the first students are selected to be surveyed.

The alternative to choosing the respondents randomly is choosing them systematically. Systematic sampling involves developing a specific sequence in which respondents in a sample are chosen. Using a random starting point, you can use an interval to sweep through a sample list.

This process ensures a thorough and even sampling. They would like to survey of them to learn more about their satisfaction and impressions of the facility. They create a systematic sampling method by randomly selecting an interval, say five. This sampling method is based on strata, also known as subpopulations. The population is broken into strata based on specific characteristics.

After the sample is broken up, strata can be randomly selected for conducting market research. A senior living community developer is looking to institute new activities and opportunities for the members of their communities.

JUDGMENTAL SAMPLING• Involves selecting a group of people because they have particular traits that the researcher wants to study• This type of sampling technique is .

Cluster sampling: The process of sampling complete groups or units is called cluster sampling, situations where there is any sub-sampling within the clusters chosen at the first stage are covered by the term multistage sampling. For example, suppose that a survey is to be done in a large town and that the unit of inquiry (i.e. the unit from which data are .

Sampling in Market Research December 13, In this two-part series, we’ll explore the techniques and methodologies of sampling populations for market research and look at the math and formulas used to calculate sample sizes and errors. In market research, sampling means getting opinions from a number of people, chosen from a specific group, in order to find out about the whole group. Let's look at sampling in more detail and discuss the most popular types of sampling used in market research.

Understanding market research samples and sampling methods. Samples and sampling is the bedrock of market research, but there is not just one way to sample or one type of sample. Thus, market research deploys sampling techniques to identify the prospective respondents for the research from the total population. There are a lot of different sampling techniques available. These are divided into two main categories based on their approach – probability sampling and non-probability sampling.