Furthermore, you can also learn about the cultural existence and change through learning about the ideas and valuables. Some meanings may also prove helpful for you in the same. Constructivism and Objectivism are the ideal ways to conduct a research in the views of pragmatism. You can also judge a topic from one or both viewpoints about the impact of the social actors. You can use these views to create a practical approach to research. It is essential in the research onion.
You can use it to come up with the solution of the problems. Deductive and inductive are the two terms that the second layer of the research onion includes. Here, previous levels may influence the decisions that you make on the current level. It is a must for you to discover your research aim and limitations. Furthermore, you must give a thought to the personal views to find out the best research method for you.
It may help you in conducting your research. In the deductive method, your aim is to find the answer to the question that you have at the start of the research.
Your premier objective stays to come up with the yes or no answer in response to the research question. Your research questions may vary from statements to informed speculation. In the deduction process, you scan the theories to the research question.
It further leads you to gather data and ultimately the confirmation or rejection of the question. You can do the revision of the theory. Moreover, you can often start the process again.
If you want to create your own theory, then you use the inductive method. So, this point in the research onion works in the opposite way of the deductive method. To put it technically, here you focus on the working title of the theory right from the start. The hierarchy of the research runs from research question to observation.
Next come the observation, description, analysis and you come up with your own theory in the end. Hence, it is better for you to use inductive method for the research if your research requirements are not big. We will discuss the third layer of the research onion in this section of the article.
You use a research style to gather and analyze data like grounded theory are the choices. Every choice has its benefits and limitations. Thus, it is a must for you to give a thorough thought to each of it. Furthermore, you should explain and balance the choice well in the work.
You have the option to choose more than one of these choices while researching. It is a must for you to justify well in your work. You can find the experimental designs very scientific and complex in their structure.
It may make it tough for others to replicate your research. Experimental designs test the casual effects of the phenomena on a group of people.
It comprises the group of people who are not under the effects of the phenomena. You can call the independent variables on the dependent variable as causal effects. Moreover, experimental strategies can give you such data that you can analyze statistically. Survey strategy of the research onion is often linked with the deductive approach.
It is one of the finest and economical research strategy. It allows you to gather huge data to answers the who, what, where, when and how of your research. You can collect rich and reliable data through this method. A case study design helps you in doing a study on one or more people. You can use the same to do research on real life cases. It is a must for you to keep a check on the number of cases to come up with a clear conclusion. Action research is the method in the research onion that tries to find and solve a problem or an issue.
An organization makes you part of it if they ask you to do a research for them. In other words, you and the organization work in collaboration on the topic.
In the action research method, you take the following process to do things:. The grounded theory builds a theory after predicting and explaining the behavior with the use of the inductive methods. In this method, you collect the data through observation. Next, you make predictions and theories with the use of this data. Finally, you test the predictions. Although this theory comes up with new theories, yet is it grounded.
It is because of the existing theory and literature on the topic. You can find the roots the ethnography in the anthropology. Anthropology is the study that allows you to study others in a detached way. But, to research with the ethnography method, you have to stay in the community or situation. You may find this research method time-consuming. It is because things can take time to change or get in your head.
Next in the research onion is the archival research. It goes as the name suggests. In other words, you do research with the use of the archive documents and existing information. Archival research allows you to explore and explain the changes happening over a long span of time. You can also do a descriptive analysis of it. But, it is possible that the information may have some fault. It may lead to your research not reaching anywhere. So, till now we have discussed the three layers of the research onion.
Hope you are understanding it well. Next, comes the fourth layer of the onion. In this layer, you discover the ways to use quantitative and qualitative methods for the research purposes. Here, you ensure whether both methods are ideal to use or one is fine. Furthermore, you also decide whether use one method more than other. Or the frequency will stay equal. You cannot find a layer of the quantitative and qualitative research methods in the research onion diagram.
Hence, you must give a thought to it continuously while researching. In quantitative research, you consider the quantity and measurements. Whereas qualitative research allows you to explore personal accounts, descriptions and opinions. You can use three types of methods according to the fourth layer of the research onion diagram. In the mono-method, you gather only one type of information from qualitative and quantitative.
You may have to do it due to the demands of the philosophy. Philosophical choices and used strategies may also demand it. You can also use this method to research on the opposing view that exists in the mono-method. Next method in the fourth layer of the research onion is mixed-methods. It allows you to use both qualitative and quantitative methods for the study purposes. You can also use the same to gather as well as analyze the data.
It is possible when you combine both these methods, you can offset the limits of these methods. You can find and fill the gaps in the information easily. Multi-methods helps you in researching with the use of the qualitative as well as quantitative information.
However, your focus stays on the one source only. This way you analyze both types of data, but with the same point of view. Layer five of the research onion has two-time horizon methods. First is cross-sectional that you can use to conduct a short time study. Another one is longitudinal that you can use while doing a long-term study. You can use qualitative and quantitative research in the cross-sectional method. It may help you in observing the behavior of a group of people or an aspect.
You can also use the same method to do study on an individual at one point of time. Longitudinal method also allows you to use qualitative and quantitative research methods.
In inductive approach, specific observations reach more generalizations leading to the formation of theories. Quantitative focuses on numbers and their frequencies and are subject to strict and rigorous analysis. Qualitative approach rather works mainly on data collection to describe factors than just inference statistically.
There are different strategies the researcher needs to choose for a particular work. Different kinds of strategies are adopted depending on what is asked in the assignment.
It could be archival research, ethnography, grounded theory, case study, action research, survey, and experiment. Then there is data collection from among the sample selected and studied. The systematic collection and data and its adequate analysis answers the research question. The validity and reliability of the research gets directly applied to data measurement.
Two types of data are there- primary and secondary. So, what is the significance of research onion? Researchonion happens to be a generic research process that helps in the analysis and depiction of issues that underpins the selection of research methods and data collection.
The significance of the research onion is an approach to peel away outer layers of the research and arrive at the core. A disciplined step-wise method is required to be followed in order to reach the core. Many students think about the research method right in the beginning, like using the questionnaire to conduct interviews. But, by Saunders research onion, research methodology is to be followed later in order to arrive at the core. This is the first and most crucial step, which refers to knowledge formation and the character of this knowledge which gets developed.
Research philosophy highly impacts research strategy, which determines the manner you influence your research strategy and refers to the method or plan you adopt in your research.
While research philosophy implies about the way you view the world, research strategy is the method through which you execute your views. As scholars, it is very important for you to understand the manner of commitment to the research philosophy you undertake, which impacts your scrutiny.
Then of course there are various other factors that together culminate into making a whole research worthwhile. Using the elements of a researchonion and performing methodological research can help you achieve the best results and accomplish the purpose of your research much easily and conveniently.
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Essay covering the concept of Research Onion, a systematic and critical investigation into an identified subject of study. Saunders et al. ().
Research Onion Diagram (based upon Saunders et al's diagram, ) Download text version About the onion.
Research onion is essential for every academic or scientific research. This article tries to give you an idea of the various research methods. Research Onion as Framework. The research onion is used in explaining the research methodology for the study with the research onion framework adopted from Saunders & Lewis (). This is presented in figure
research onion) need to be considered in relation to other design elements (the outer layers of the research onion). It is the The Layers of Research Design By Mark Saunders and Paul Tosey subsequently processed subjectively by the mind. For the critical realist researcher. PDF | On Jul 1, , Arun Aditya Sahay and others published Peeling Saunder's Research Onion.