Skip Nav

Looking for other ways to read this?

Search form

❶Department of Agriculture USDA to sell animals for research purposes, while Class B dealers are licensed to buy animals from "random sources" such as auctions, pound seizure, and newspaper ads. The CDC conducts infectious disease research on nonhuman primates, rabbits, mice, and other animals, while FDA requirements cover use of animals in pharmaceutical research.

Are animal models useful?

Related Content
Navigation menu
IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:

In , a primate researcher at the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA shut down the experiments in his lab after threats from animal rights activists. The researcher had received a grant to use 30 macaque monkeys for vision experiments; each monkey was anesthetized for a single physiological experiment lasting up to hours, and then euthanized.

Demonstrations were held in front of his home. A Molotov cocktail was placed on the porch of what was believed to be the home of another UCLA primate researcher; instead, it was accidentally left on the porch of an elderly woman unrelated to the university. The Animal Liberation Front claimed responsibility for the attack. These attacks—as well as similar incidents that caused the Southern Poverty Law Center to declare in that the animal rights movement had "clearly taken a turn toward the more extreme"—prompted the US government to pass the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act and the UK government to add the offense of "Intimidation of persons connected with animal research organisation" to the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act Such legislation and the arrest and imprisonment of activists may have decreased the incidence of attacks.

Most scientists and governments state that animal testing should cause as little suffering to animals as possible, and that animal tests should only be performed where necessary.

The "Three Rs" [72] [] are guiding principles for the use of animals in research in most countries. Whilst replacement of animals, i. The scientists and engineers at Harvard's Wyss Institute have created "organs-on-a-chip", including the "lung-on-a-chip" and "gut-on-a-chip". These tiny devices contain human cells in a 3-dimensional system that mimics human organs. The chips can be used instead of animals in in vitro disease research, drug testing, and toxicity testing.

Another non-animal research method is in silico or computer simulation and mathematical modeling which seeks to investigate and ultimately predict toxicity and drug affects in humans without using animals. This is done by investigating test compounds on a molecular level using recent advances in technological capabilities with the ultimate goal of creating treatments unique to each patient. Microdosing is another alternative to the use of animals in experimentation.

Microdosing is a process whereby volunteers are administered a small dose of a test compound allowing researchers to investigate its pharmacological affects without harming the volunteers. Microdosing can replace the use of animals in pre-clinical drug screening and can reduce the number of animals used in safety and toxicity testing. Additional alternative methods include positron emission tomography PET , which allows scanning of the human brain in vivo , [] and comparative epidemiological studies of disease risk factors among human populations.

Simulators and computer programs have also replaced the use of animals in dissection , teaching and training exercises. These bodies are mainly driven by responding to regulatory requirements, such as supporting the cosmetics testing ban in the EU by validating alternative methods.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Animal studies disambiguation. History of animal testing. Animal testing on invertebrates. Animal testing on frogs , Animal testing on rabbits , Animal testing on rodents , Draize test , and Median lethal dose. Laika and Soviet space dogs. Animal testing on non-human primates. Laboratory animal sources and International primate trade. Animal cognition , Pain in animals , Pain in fish , Pain in amphibians , Pain in invertebrates , and Pain in cephalopods.

Euthanasia and Animal euthanasia. Testing cosmetics on animals. Animal welfare , Animal rights , and History of animal testing. Alternatives to animal testing. Retrieved 24 January Archived from the original PDF on 25 June British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. Archived from the original PDF on 13 May The Humane Society of the United States". Archived from the original on 23 July Laboratory Primate Advocacy Group. Archived from the original on 13 October A study and translations from his book Al-Mukhtar".

The Elixir Sulfanilamide Incident". US Food and Drug Administration. Changing Attitudes Towards Speciesism. Animal experimentation from antiquity to the end of the eighteenth century: Vivisection in Historical Perspective.

Croom Helm, London, , p. The Scalpel and the Butterfly: The Conflict , University of California Press, p. The Brown Dog Affair. Two Sevens Publishing, A New Life , W. Animal Research in Medicine: The Story of the Research Defence Society. March —; Selected by the committee. Code of Federal Regulations. Animal Legal Defense Fund. Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 14 June Retrieved 7 July Reliability of Protocol Reviews for Animal Research".

While growth has leveled off and there have been significant reductions in some countries, the number of animals used in research globally still totals almost million a year. Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Journal of Medical Ethics. Protest, Process and Public Policy: An Analysis of Strategic Issues. Government Printing Office, , p. In , the Laboratory Animal Breeders Association estimated in testimony before Congress that the number of mice, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, and rabbits used in was around 60 million.

House of Representatives, , p. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. Tissue Engineering Part C Methods. Archived from the original PDF on 7 June Retrieved 23 July Check date values in: Identification of virulence factors using a bacterial genome library and multiple invertebrate hosts".

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Retrieved 9 July International Primate Protection League. Hoffeld and Martin L. Fleur, Nicholas 12 June Will Call All Chimps 'Endangered ' ". American Journal of Primatology. National Center for Research Resources. Archived from the original on 22 September Animals, Property, and the Law. Temple University Press, , p.

Senate Committee on Commerce, 25 March Where Do the Animals Come From? American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Journal of Animal Science. Animal Consciousness, Animal Pain, and Science. Oxford University Press, , pp. Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 25 January Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Welfare.

Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. Archived from the original PDF on 15 August Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Molecular mechanisms in worms and mammals". Applications for psycho-neuroethology studies". The Science of Birdsong , Academic Press, Retrieved 25 April Retrieved 30 January Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. A report on the use of primates in experiments Archived 27 February at the Wayback Machine. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. European Journal of Endocrinology. More than a cosmetic change" PDF.

Archived from the original PDF on 27 February The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Archived from the original on 18 March Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 27 February The Times of India. Retrieved 14 October Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Animal Use in Education. The Human Use of Animals. The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.

Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 10 November Does shooting goats save soldiers' lives? Archived from the original on 15 December Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. Blackwell Companions to Philosophy, The ethics of research involving animals at the Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Bart; Sena, Emily S. An Overview of Systematic Reviews". The New York Times. The Journal of Physiology.

Their influence on contractile properties and in vivo muscle function". Microscopy Research and Technique. Skeletal Muscle Structure, Function, and Plasticity: The Physiological Basis of Rehabilitation , 2nd ed. Retrieved 6 July An animal welfare perspective". Canadian Council on Animal Care in Science. Estimating risk of smoking on cancer deaths in Chinese men". International Journal of Medical Sciences: Archived from the original on 9 December Retrieved 6 April BfR 30 September Michael and Parker, James V Experimenting with humans and animals: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Speaking of Research, Historical Statistics for animal research numbers , accessed 19 April Animal testing alternatives Go3R: Animal testing Alternatives to animal testing Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on frogs Animal testing on non-human primates Animal testing on rabbits Animal testing on rodents Experimentation on prisoners History of animal testing History of model organisms Laboratory animal sources Toxicology testing.

Animal rights Animal welfare Pain and suffering in laboratory animals Biomedical research Great Ape research ban International trade in primates. Charles River Laboratories, Inc. Animal testing Animal rights Animal welfare. Clinical research and experimental design. Clinical trial Trial protocols Adaptive clinical trial Academic clinical trials Clinical study design.

Randomized controlled trial Scientific experiment Blind experiment Open-label trial. Incidence Cumulative incidence Prevalence Point Period association: Clinical endpoint Virulence Infectivity Mortality rate Morbidity Case fatality rate Specificity and sensitivity Likelihood-ratios Pre- and post-test probability. Risk—benefit ratio Systematic review Replication Meta-analysis Intention-to-treat analysis. Selection bias Survivorship bias Correlation does not imply causation Null result.

Category Glossary List of topics. Clark Alasdair Cochrane J. Retrieved from " https: Animal testing Animal welfare Bioethics Biology experiments Ethics and statistics Laboratory techniques Research methods Animal test conditions. Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter CS1 errors: Views Read Edit View history.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. This page was last edited on 13 September , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. A Wistar laboratory rat. Around 50— million vertebrate animals are used in experiments annually. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Animal testing. Selective breeding involves selecting parents that have characteristics of interest in the hope that their offspring inherit those desirable characteristics.

The zebrafish Danio rerio has become a popular model organism only relatively recently. It is a tropical fish from the minnow family with a genetic structure surprisingly similar to ours. Humans and mice share many common genetic features and by examining the physiology, anatomy and metabolism of a mouse, scientists can gain a valuable insight into how humans function. Humans have been breeding animals for millenia to bring out desirable characteristics. With the thoroughbred race horse there's lots of money at stake but with research mice it's the possibility of life-saving new treatments.

Can you spare minutes to tell us what you think of this website? Debates Animals and Plants. Replacing, where possible, experiments using animals with alternative techniques such as cell culture, computer modelling or human volunteers instead of animals. Refining the way the animals are cared for to help minimise any stress or pain, by using less invasive techniques where possible and improving medical care and living conditions. Are animal models useful? Yes Scientists have been able to advance their knowledge of human and animal health and disease dramatically by studying model organisms.

Antibiotics , insulin , vaccines , organ transplantation and HIV treatment have all been developed with the help of experiments involving animals. Research using animals has contributed to 70 per cent of Nobel Prizes for Physiology or Medicine. No No animal model is ever perfect and there are still many differences between model organisms and humans.

The reason that some medicines do not make it to market is that despite passing tests in animals they then fail in humans. Some people will say that that animals have not been as critical to medicine as is generally claimed. Yes The use of animals in research is essential for enabling researchers to develop new drugs and treatments. Alternative methods of research do not simulate humans and whole body systems in the same way and are not as reliable. No Many animals are used for experiments and then killed.

It is expensive to use model organisms as the animals must be purchased and then fed, housed and cared for.

Some people will consider using animals in the lab to be immoral. Are animal experiments necessary? Legally, all drugs have to be tested on animals for safety before they can be used in humans.

Where there are reliable alternatives in scientific research, animals are not used. Through testing on animals we are able to ensure any risks of a drug are identified and minimised before it is tested on humans during clinical trials. This helps to reduce side effects and human fatalities. Is it ethical to use animals in research?

Yes The UK has gone further than any other country to implement thorough ethical frameworks when it comes to animals in research. The Animals Act of ensures that any research using animals must be fully assessed in terms of any harm to the animals.


Main Topics

Privacy Policy

Should the use of animals in research be a mandatory part of modern progressive science? Yes; Currently animal testing is a compulsory, legal part of drug testing. Animal studies are always used alongside other types of research such as cell cultures, computer modelling and human clinical trials.

Privacy FAQs

Relatively few animals are used in research, which is a small price to pay for advancing medical progress. People in the United States eat 9 billion chickens and million cattle, pigs and sheep annually, yet we only use around 26 million animals for research, 95% of which are rodents, birds and fish.

About Our Ads

Importance of use of animals in scientific research. For a question should animals be used for experimentation, we put some light to understand the type of experimentation being conducted. For the verification of new medicine or complex whether it is fatal to use in humans medical research requires the use of animals. Why Are Animals Used in Research? Human beings use animals for a wide variety of purposes, including research. The approximately million people in the United States keep about million dogs and cats as pets.

Cookie Info

Should Animals be Used for Scientific Research? Essay. millions of animals experience painful, suffering and death due to results of scientific research as the effects of drugs, medical procedures, food additives, cosmetics and other chemical products. Should Animals Be Used in Research - Free download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. animal use.